Definitive Guide to Charging Electric Cars
Definitive Guide to Charging an Electric Car
How Do You Charge an Electric Car?
Charging an electric car might seem like a foreign idea at first. However, the convenience and significant savings from skipping the pump cannot be overstated. If you’re considering an EV, you might be wondering: “How do I charge an electric car?”
In this definitive guide, we will explore how to charge an electric vehicle (EV) and answer questions such as:
- What types of chargers are out there?
- What charger do I need for my home?
- What will it cost to get a home charger?
- Where can I find charging stations when on the road?
- How much does it cost to charge an electric car?
- How much range can I expect between charges?
Before jumping into how to charge an EV, let’s quickly review some of the charging basics.
EV batteries deliver power to a car’s electric motor by using energy that is stored inside the battery cells. When the battery is being charged, the electric flow is reversed to replenish the power used.
To charge an EV battery, a charging station is often installed and used at home. They can also be found in many public areas and used while traveling – often for a small fee. The time it takes to charge will vary based on the level of charger you use: Level 1, Level 2, or Level 3 (also referred to as DC Fast Charging). EV charging stations are also sometimes referred to as Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). For simplicity, we will continue to refer to them as charging stations.
Level 1 Charging
The most basic plug-in method to recharge an EV battery is known as Level 1 charging. Many household appliances,from toasters to coffee makers, use this 110V standard outlet, also commonly known as a 120V outlet. The two names can be used interchangeably.
Level 1 is the simplest and most inexpensive way to charge your car. It also takes the longest. With Level 1, most cars charge at the rate of 3-7 miles of range per hour. For instance, a 2020 Nissan Leaf with a 149-mile range may take over 20 hours to fully charge. While Level 1 charging is slow, most drivers are not recharging the battery from zero each day.
For people with short, local commutes, Level 1 charging should be enough.
For example, many EVs today have a battery range that extends beyond 125 miles. Consider the 2020 Nissan Leaf S model, which has a range of 149 miles. Let’s assume you have a daily commute of 20 miles. An overnight charge (charging for eight hours) of 3-7 miles an hour would provide a 24 to 56-mile recharge every night. If the Leaf is mostly charged when you come home after work, this top-off would be enough.
If you drive a Plug-in Hybrid (PHEV),Level 1 charging at home is usually adequate. The battery of a PHEV is smaller than an EV and, as such, requires less time to recharge. To learn more about PHEVs, check out our Definitive Guide to Plug-In Hybrids.
One huge advantage of Level 1 charging is that it doesn’t require any special equipment for at-home use. Automakers provide a connector kit when you buy a new battery-electric vehicle (BEV) or PHEV. These connector kits simply plug into a basic household outlet on one end and connect to your car on the other. If you need to purchase one, they are inexpensive and easy to find.
Level 2 Charging
If speed and convenience are important to you, a Level 2 charger is the better choice. Similar to the power source for high-power home appliances, like a stove or dryer, Level 2 chargers use a 240V power supply. Many EV drivers decide to install a Level 2 charging station in their home because it provides a faster charging time.
A Level 2 charger charges at a rate of 20-30 miles per hour. If we look at the same 2020 Nissan Leaf, recharging an empty battery to a full charge can take just six hours. Nissan recommends installing a Level 2 charging station at home, but it may not be necessary depending on your daily commute.
A Level 2 charging station costs between $350 to $1,000 for the hardware, plus the cost of hiring an electrician to install the station. The installation cost can vary based on the age of the home and whether the electrician needs to do any rewiring. There are several EVSE manufacturers to choose from, including Chargepoint, ClipperCreek, Siemens, Enel X and others. EVSE manufacturers and some utilities can suggest installers as well.
Level 3 / DC Fast Charging (DCFC)
Level 3 chargers, also known as DC Fast Chargers (DCFC), can recharge an EV from zero to 80% in 30 minutes or less. For instance, the 2020 Nissan Leaf mentioned above can use a DC Fast Charger and fully recharge in about 30 minutes. There are also Tesla Supercharger stations that can charge even faster, but they are proprietary connectors that only work with Teslas.
Level 3 chargers use three common connectors: the CCS (Combined Charging System) plug, the CHAdeMO plug and the Tesla plug. The three connectors are different but serve the same purpose. Many public Level 3 charging stations support several formats but, depending on your vehicle, your car will support only one of the three connectors.
The CCS connection is often used for vehicles made by European and American vehicle brands, such as the BMW i3 and the Chevy Bolt. The CHAdeMO connection is used in Asian models like the Nissan Leaf and the Kia Soul. Last, but not least, the Tesla plug is only available for Tesla vehicles.
Due to the complexity and cost, Level 3 chargers are primarily used for public charging and not at home. To give an idea, a typical Level 3 charging station can range from $10,000 to $50,000, not including installation. Although fast, it is not recommended to use Level 3 charging stations regularly, because they do negatively impact the life of the battery over time.
Next, let’s explore where you can charge your vehicle: at home, at public charging stations and at work.
As mentioned above, EVs can be charged at home with Level 1 or Level 2 chargers. A Level 1 charger has a simple cord like any other household appliance and does not require special installation. Level 2 chargers, on the other hand, operate at a higher voltage and do require a licensed professional electrician to perform a safe installation.
If you don’t have access to a home charger, you will likely need to use public charging stations. Public charging is usually at Level 2 or Level 3, and the cost of charging varies. Additionally,some chargers are free to use which we’ve highlighted on our Charging Network Map. Many of these charging stations are privately managed while others are either state-owned or utility-owned.
To use public charging stations, it’soften required to register with the operating company or utility. There are various ways to use them: with a membership number or code, a charge card, a smartphone app or a combination.
EV charging at work has become an added perk that benefits several stakeholders. It helps employers promote clean transportation and their corporate sustainability efforts, and it helps employees charge conveniently and affordably. It can also benefit building owners, as it is a great way to future-proof their commercial property and bring in extra revenue. Many employers provide workplace charging at no cost, while some have a fee-based structure to offset capital or operational costs.
In addition, utilities and states may offer rebates to offset purchase and installation costs for commercial workplace charging. Depending on the business and its business model, it could be free to use or part of an extended retail charging network for which charging rates may be highly variable.
Examples of workplace charging can include local businesses, malls, university campuses,healthcare facilities, utilities, federal agencies and more.
An EV’s ability to accept electric power is dictated by the battery chemistry. That being said, not all EVs can use a Level 3 charger. To understand why, let’s explore how Level 3 is different from Level 2.
Level 2 chargers use AC current that is converted to DC inside the vehicle. In contrast, Level 3 charger feeds DC electricity straight into the battery, without conversion. This allows the car to charge more rapidly. The charging station’s software regulates the flow of electricity, so to not overload the EV’s system and risk damaging the battery. It does this by reducing the power supply to a Level 2 as the state of charge reaches about 80 percent.
Level 3 charging should not be used as the primary source of charging. Continual use may accelerate battery degradation,resulting in loss of efficiency and lifespan.
For more information on batteries and range, read our Definitive Guide to Batteries and Range.
How Do You Find an Electric Car Charging Station?
There are many ways to locate EV charging stations near you, whether you’re driving across country or taking a casual Sunday drive. Let’s explore four ways to find an EV charging station.
GreenCar Partner Network
Our charging network includes 119 locations that provide free access to 260 charging stations across the U.S. with no strings attached – just cables. Show up at any location, highlighted on the map in green and yellow, to get free Level 1 and/or Level 2 charging. All other nationwide charging stations are also listed and highlighted in grey. We’ve got everything you need to get charged up and on your way!
You can find our Green Partners in Alaska, California, Florida, Hawaii, Iowa, Idaho,Montana, New Jersey, Nevada, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vermont,Washington and West Virginia.
PlugShare has a website and an app that provide EV charging station information across North America, Asia and Europe. It aggregates information regarding the EV charging networks, locations, charging fees, payment method, real-time information on usage and more. It provides information about all types of charging stations.
What is unique about PlugShare is that is user-sourced, meaning there is a community of active members who contribute and update the database. In addition to public stations, they also show residential stations shared within neighborhoods.
ChargeHub provides similar information as PlugShare, with an app and a community. One unique feature: it lets you send a message to other users through its app. This allows users to coordinate charging station time and provides a way to share resources, if needed.
The Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) is a U.S. Department of Energy database that aggregates public charging stations from Level 1 through Level 3. They also provide similar information that lets you filter by charger types, EVSE networks and connectors through zip codes.
How Long Does It Take to Charge an Electric Car?
The time it takes can vary from 30 minutes to 30 hours, depending on various factors:
- Level of charge (1, 2 or 3) — the source of power will determine the speed of charge.
- Battery size — the bigger the battery capacity, the longer time it will take to charge.
- Battery state — if the battery is empty, it will take longer to recharge.
- Charging rate of vehicle — you will only be able to charge based on the maximum charge rate. For instance, if the vehicle has a maximum charge rate of 20kW and the charging station has 40kW, the speed will be 20kW.
- Environmental factors — freezing temperatures can slow down charging. Cold temperatures can also reduce the vehicle’s efficiency and drivers might see a reduction in range.
Charging on Road Trips
The fear of being stranded during along road trip is a major roadblock to large-scale EV adoption. However, there are private and public efforts to add more charging stations. Private companies such as Electrify America , EVgo and ChargePoint continue to expand their charger networks.
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, there are about 21,876 charging stations with 65,003 individual charging outlets across the United States. Roughly 80% of EV drivers charge at home and use their EV locally. If traveling a long distance, many opt to use their gasoline-powered car. A round trip that might take eight hours in a gas-powered vehicle can easily take over 10 hours in an EV when you factor in charging time. There is also the possibility of having to wait for an available charging station. However, automakers continue to add more range to their cars,and the charging infrastructure continues to expand.
How Much Does It Cost to Charge an Electric Car?
The cost to charge an EV depends on various factors, including location, time and rates. A person living in Nebraska can expect to pay a lot less to charge their EV compared to a person in Hawaii where electricity rates are more expensive. EVs generally cost less to fuel than a comparable gasoline-powered car, because electricity rates tend to be more stable than gasoline prices.
For example, the average residential electricity rate in the U.S. is 12.85 cents per kWh (as of February 2020). This hasn’t changed much from five years ago when it was 12.29 cents per kWh. While local rates may have fluctuated more or less, the national average price has been stable. The average person driving an EV for 15,000 miles per year can expect to pay about $600 per year (or $50 per month) to charge.
Let us assume that you are paying 15.5 cents per kWh and you are considering a 2020 Nissan Leaf with a battery range of 149 miles. To charge up to a 100-mile range will cost 30 kWh. If we take 30 and multiply that by 15.5 cents, we get a total cost of $4.65 per 100 miles of range.
If we compare to a gasoline-powered car, assuming a cost of $3.25 per gallon with a vehicle that gets 25 miles per gallon, that same 100-mile range would cost $13 per 100 miles. As you can see,the savings of an EV really begin to add up over time.
When you consider other EV savings in the equation — including federal tax credits, state rebates and reduced maintenance costs — it’s clear that an EV can lead to substantial savings overall.
Cost of Home Charging
Like other commodities, electricity is priced at the intersection of a supply and demand curve. When demand is decreased, the cost of using electricity is reduced. When demand increases, so does the cost of using electricity. The best time to charge an EV is typically at night, when most people are sleeping –which is convenient because you’re probably sleeping too!
Because they provide the power, electric utilities are incentivized to help their existing customers learn more about the benefits of EVs. As such, some utilities will provide special EV rates. These rates are only for customers with EVs and can reduce the cost of charging as well as the total cost of home electricity.
Some utilities offer a Time of Use(TOU) plan, allowing customers to take advantage of reduced rates at certain times – often at night. TOU rates are not specific to EV owners and, therefore,anyone can take advantage of the reduced rates. Many Level 2 chargers also have automatic systems that can be set up to charge EVs during the reduced-rate times. This is done so the homeowner can take advantage of reduced costs without having to remember exactly when to plug in.
Cost of Public Charging
With more EVs on the road each day, public charging stations have become increasingly common. Many stations are part of a larger charging network that works with aggregators as well as manufacturers.
There are three main pricing models for public charging: pay-as-you-go, monthly subscription and free.
The pay-as-you-go option is the most common among drivers. Pricing is based on either dollar per kWh or simply by the hour. In a dollar per kWh scenario, rates can vary depending on several factors such as location, peak times or how the commercial owner of the property has set their rates. For instance, a mall may charge 38 cents per kWh.Around the corner, a similar charger may be priced at 18 cents a kWh. Another may simply be free. The hourly model is also used in some locations. For instance, instead of charging 49 cents per kWh, charging companies can have a standard $4.99 per hour charge.
Find a free charging station near you, use our Charging Station Map.